punch them out with a wire. Keep the space about the base of the tree clean, and watch closely for any sign of borers. The flat-headed borer of the apple works under the bark on the trunk and larger branches, particularly where much exposed to sun. The dead and sunken appearance of the bark indicates its presence. The round-headed borer works in the wood of apples, quinces, and other trees; it should be hunted for every spring and fall. On hard land, it is well to dig the earth away from the base of the tree and fill the space with coal ashes; this will make the work of examination much easier.
The peach and apricot borer is the larva of a clear-wing moth. The larva burrows just under the bark near or beneath the surface of the ground; its presence is indicated by a gummy mass at the base of the tree. Dig out the borers in June and mound up the trees. At the same time, apply gas-tar or coal-tar to the trunk from the roots to a foot or more above the surface of the ground.
The bronze birch borer is destroying many fine white birch trees in some parts of the country. Its presence is known by the dying of the top of the tree. There yet is no known way of preventing this borer from attacking white birches, and the only practicable and effective method so far found for checking its ravages is promptly to cut and burn the infested trees in autumn, in winter, or before May 1. There is no probability of saving a tree when the top branches are dead, although cutting out the dead parts may stay the trouble temporarily. Cut and burn such trees at once and thus prevent the spread of the insect.