and about the size of a small pin head, with a raised center. When abundant, it forms a crust on the branches and causes small red spots on the fruit. It multiplies with marvelous rapidity, there being three or four broods annually in New York, and each mother scale may give birth to several hundred young. The young are born alive, and breeding continues until late autumn when all stages are killed by the cold weather except the tiny half-grown black scales, many of which hibernate safely. Spray thoroughly in the fall after the leaves drop, or early in the spring before growth begins, with lime-sulfur wash, or miscible oil 1 gal. in 10 gal. of water. When badly infested, make two applications, one in the fall and another in the spring. In case of large old trees, 25 per cent crude oil emulsion should be applied just as the buds are swelling.
In nurseries, after the trees are dug, fumigate with hydrocyanic acid gas, using 1 oz. of potassium cyanide for every 100 cu. ft. of space. Continue the fumigation from one-half to three-quarters of an hour. Do not fumigate the trees when they are wet, since the presence of moisture renders them liable to injury.